Splintered Shard


Studying For Funsies - CARRIAGES 

18thcenturylove:

Sooo like a true history peep, I take notes on random bits of historical history. This week, carriages! :D (forgive me if I made a mistake!)

BAROUCHE

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BERLINE

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CABRIOLET

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CALASH (also name for folding top on BAROUCHE, CHAISE and VICTORIA)

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CHAISE (CHAY, SHAY)

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CURRICLE (TYPE OF CHAISE)

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COUPE

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No roof for driver = COUPE DE-VILLE
Coupé de-ville with folding top = LANDAU
Coupé de-ville with folding top over passenger =LANDAULET

DILIGENCE

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HANSOM (BASED ON CABRIOLET, A TYPE OF “FLY”)

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- "Fly" = A cab (short for cabriolet) for hire, hansom replaced hackney
- A hackney of a more expensive or high class was called a REMISE

OMNIBUS

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PHAETON

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VICTORIA (PHAETON BUT CLASSIER)

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You may get asked this a lot, so please excuse my ignorance - but how do you go about constructing character expressions and body language and such? Thanks!
freeglassart

rufftoon:

makanidotdot:

Besides The Basics (construction of heads and skulls and muscles and skeletons and how they move), I’ll go over some things I’ve been trying to work on myself lately:

1. Treat expressions as a single gesture of the face/head, as opposed to a head and then individual features dumped on a plate and arranged into an expression.

First, just get down the big shapes of your expression, just like you would for a pose.  

So say I wanna do a low angle angry pose.  I know the features are gonna be all mashed down at the bottom because of perspective.

 Scribble it down

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start to put on features

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fix stuff

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put on more stuff

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fix stuff again

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erasing and flipping and stuff a whole bunch until you are happy with it or stop caring

Whole head is a gesture!image

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2. Just like a facial expression, jot down where the important parts of an entire pose goes first.  You can force the rest of the body to fit the pose.

So here I knew I wanted the shoulders tilted a certain direction, and te hand to be in that particular position in front of her face. 

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That’s the simplest explanation I got.  Don’t be afraid to push and pull faces and bodies around! Worry about being “on model” last!

All great tips, plus bonus Zhao.

<3



kada-bura:

Practicing hands on hips because yO THATS WEIRDLY HARD TO DRAW FOR ME

kada-bura:

Practicing hands on hips because yO THATS WEIRDLY HARD TO DRAW FOR ME



art advice   hands   

cartoonbrew:

Animation Tips: Line Of Action

These notes by Sherm Cohen ( for a class at Nickelodeon ) demonstrate not only the importance of a clear line of action but the need for contrast in the line between poses.
“Let the body tell the story”

via http://cartoonsnap.blogspot.ca/



ricelily:

All these pages are 8.5x11, 300 dpi. Feel free to print it out in full size if you like physical copies

Comics and Comic Artists

Jake Wyatt- deviantart tumblr

"Welcome To Summers"

"Soliloquy"

Suggested Reading/Books:

Scott McCloud’s “Making Comics” (entirely done in comic format)

Exercises/Practices/Tutorials:

Lettering

Speech Bubbles Mistakes

Paint Bucket Resource

Storyboarding and Camera angles

What is DPI?

Transferring Traditional to Digital (Photoshop Tutorial)



Dangers of online friends: 

itssimplysam23:

-You become emotionally attached.
-You can’t hug them whenever you want to which is something you often forget.
-You find people who don’t judge you. At all.
-You have to learn time zones. That’s a real bummer.
-You find people who love you for you.
-You sometimes cry because you just love them so much and get super emotional when you realize they are thousands of miles away from you.



steveholtvstheuniverse:

lmao like the only time i EVER see hard disney fans even mention ghibli and miyazaki in comparison to disney films is in light of disney’s own mistakes and laziness like damn y’all need to calm down
lemme teach you a lil’ somethin’ somethin’ about stylistic choices in animation and sheer laziness
STYLISTIC choices is about having the full capability of creating characters separate from the previous protagonists while at the same time tying them to the studio that produced them.


And that’s not even scratching the surface.

Considering that a good portion of Ghibli’s library consists of LEAD FEMALE PROTAGONISTS who are usually very young, they need to find a set balance between recognizable and unique.
Ghibli was founded on traditional art and the studio still holds many of those values with it. This is of course including hand-drawn animation in which there is no single model, only the same character drawn over and over again. Is this about CGI vs traditional? No, both can and have provided beautiful films and scenes but it’s not about which one deserves more recognition. It’s about the methods used and how the choices for each one vary. I only bring up the animation methods because it’s part of the reason as to WHY these characters are so simplistic in design.
Still though, they need each lead character to stick to the Ghibli/Miyazaki style to a certain extent. They need to share certain qualities to make them fall in line with the rest of Ghibli’s library.
I mean, they have their differences but they’re obviously Ghibli characters so okay they all have relatively small eyebrows (though considering that they are Japanese that ties in with their ethnicity but OKAY moving on), they all have the eye highlight thing going on, and they all have very non-pronounced noses. I suppose yeah those are all the same. They do shift but those characteristics are roughly the same.
Still though, that isn’t a problem nor is it blatant same-facing. All LAIKA characters have skewed noses, all Dreamworks characters have thin noses, and all Aardman characters have bulgy eyes. Does that mean they’re same-facing? No. It means they’re sticking to stylistic choices to keep themselves separate from the competition.
Don Bluth MADE the choice to stick to a style closely resembling Disney. You know what happened? A whole generation grew up thinking that Anastasia and Thumbelina were both DISNEY films, not Bluth and Fox animation.
There’s a reason why studios tend to go for their own set style.
But hey! Want even more evidence that it’s a stylistic choice?
Because THE VERY SAME CHOICES CAN BE SAID FOR THE DUDES


Save for Haku because he’s a fuckin’ dragon.

While gender is never really brought up in Ghibli films, masculinity and femininity are both neutral here, it’s safe to say that their designs and treatment are both equal. Ghibli isn’t out to make exclusively beautiful/handsome characters, they make them as simple as possible to keep them relatable and much more easier to manage.
The difference here is that Disney has always set out to make their MALES different while sticking their females to the same “doe eyed, small nose, thin lips” ideal. Yes, there is a set Disney style and it has always focused on those features and that necessarily isn’t a bad thing. It’s the Disney style. HOWEVER it seems to only apply to their females. Even worse is their marketing of said females.


GOTTA KEEP THEM GURLS PURTY

The Disney style has shifted from time to time and it shows evidence that it CAN include more diverse female designs. Both Kida and Calhoun are wonderful examples of this. It’s not as if Disney hasn’t evolved or changed their views on female characters to a certain extent. Unfortunately, said shifts haven’t always worked out in our favor or headed in the right direction. It wasn’t until Tangled that Disney came out with it’s true “get richer quicker” scheme with their female leads.


watch as i shift into MAXIMUM PUNZEL-DRIVE

As of late it’s Disney’s sheer laziness when it comes to female design and their own avarice that has caused SUUUUCH a dramatic shift in how fans are taking the Disney style now. When Ghibli audiences and fans never look at a new movie and go “oh it’s Chihiro but tiny” or “oh it’s Chihiro but on a broom.” That is the set style, not a lazy copy-paste.
But hey, let’s bring in OTHER females to see how this works out. I mean, the Ghibli style is prevalent to ALL of their characters so surely they all the parents look exactly like their children.
Let’s look at these lovely lady leads and compare them to their parents.


Congrats, kids, you’re all adopted!

WEIRDLY ENOUGH all of the characters and their parents (if they have any) share same characteristics while at the same time remaining completely unique to each other. It’s almost as if they also take after their father and/or previous generations of their familly. Haha, genetics!
But okay, let’s be a little more fair with Disney.
Let’s look at two families with two daughters.


Mitosis or go home

There is having stylistic choices and there is being lazy.
There is creating a character with similarities to their parent and there is making a recolor of your lead character.
There is creating simple designs for a traditionally animated film and there is reusing the same model because it worked so well the first time.
There is being a small Tokyo-based studio with 300 employees and there is being a large American animation studio with 800+ employees.
THAT is why no one ever complains about Ghibli’s approach to character design and THAT is why Disney doesn’t even come close to Miyazaki.
Let’s finish this off with some MORE wonderful Ghibli characters (most of which being my personal favorites so they belong on here too.)

Now go watch more Ghibli.

steveholtvstheuniverse:

lmao like the only time i EVER see hard disney fans even mention ghibli and miyazaki in comparison to disney films is in light of disney’s own mistakes and laziness like damn y’all need to calm down

lemme teach you a lil’ somethin’ somethin’ about stylistic choices in animation and sheer laziness

STYLISTIC choices is about having the full capability of creating characters separate from the previous protagonists while at the same time tying them to the studio that produced them.

And that’s not even scratching the surface.

Considering that a good portion of Ghibli’s library consists of LEAD FEMALE PROTAGONISTS who are usually very young, they need to find a set balance between recognizable and unique.

Ghibli was founded on traditional art and the studio still holds many of those values with it. This is of course including hand-drawn animation in which there is no single model, only the same character drawn over and over again. Is this about CGI vs traditional? No, both can and have provided beautiful films and scenes but it’s not about which one deserves more recognition. It’s about the methods used and how the choices for each one vary. I only bring up the animation methods because it’s part of the reason as to WHY these characters are so simplistic in design.

Still though, they need each lead character to stick to the Ghibli/Miyazaki style to a certain extent. They need to share certain qualities to make them fall in line with the rest of Ghibli’s library.

I mean, they have their differences but they’re obviously Ghibli characters so okay they all have relatively small eyebrows (though considering that they are Japanese that ties in with their ethnicity but OKAY moving on), they all have the eye highlight thing going on, and they all have very non-pronounced noses. I suppose yeah those are all the same. They do shift but those characteristics are roughly the same.

Still though, that isn’t a problem nor is it blatant same-facing. All LAIKA characters have skewed noses, all Dreamworks characters have thin noses, and all Aardman characters have bulgy eyes. Does that mean they’re same-facing? No. It means they’re sticking to stylistic choices to keep themselves separate from the competition.

Don Bluth MADE the choice to stick to a style closely resembling Disney. You know what happened? A whole generation grew up thinking that Anastasia and Thumbelina were both DISNEY films, not Bluth and Fox animation.

There’s a reason why studios tend to go for their own set style.

But hey! Want even more evidence that it’s a stylistic choice?

Because THE VERY SAME CHOICES CAN BE SAID FOR THE DUDES

Save for Haku because he’s a fuckin’ dragon.

While gender is never really brought up in Ghibli films, masculinity and femininity are both neutral here, it’s safe to say that their designs and treatment are both equal. Ghibli isn’t out to make exclusively beautiful/handsome characters, they make them as simple as possible to keep them relatable and much more easier to manage.

The difference here is that Disney has always set out to make their MALES different while sticking their females to the same “doe eyed, small nose, thin lips” ideal. Yes, there is a set Disney style and it has always focused on those features and that necessarily isn’t a bad thing. It’s the Disney style. HOWEVER it seems to only apply to their females. Even worse is their marketing of said females.

GOTTA KEEP THEM GURLS PURTY

The Disney style has shifted from time to time and it shows evidence that it CAN include more diverse female designs. Both Kida and Calhoun are wonderful examples of this. It’s not as if Disney hasn’t evolved or changed their views on female characters to a certain extent. Unfortunately, said shifts haven’t always worked out in our favor or headed in the right direction. It wasn’t until Tangled that Disney came out with it’s true “get richer quicker” scheme with their female leads.

watch as i shift into MAXIMUM PUNZEL-DRIVE

As of late it’s Disney’s sheer laziness when it comes to female design and their own avarice that has caused SUUUUCH a dramatic shift in how fans are taking the Disney style now. When Ghibli audiences and fans never look at a new movie and go “oh it’s Chihiro but tiny” or “oh it’s Chihiro but on a broom.” That is the set style, not a lazy copy-paste.

But hey, let’s bring in OTHER females to see how this works out. I mean, the Ghibli style is prevalent to ALL of their characters so surely they all the parents look exactly like their children.

Let’s look at these lovely lady leads and compare them to their parents.

Congrats, kids, you’re all adopted!

WEIRDLY ENOUGH all of the characters and their parents (if they have any) share same characteristics while at the same time remaining completely unique to each other. It’s almost as if they also take after their father and/or previous generations of their familly. Haha, genetics!

But okay, let’s be a little more fair with Disney.

Let’s look at two families with two daughters.

Mitosis or go home

There is having stylistic choices and there is being lazy.

There is creating a character with similarities to their parent and there is making a recolor of your lead character.

There is creating simple designs for a traditionally animated film and there is reusing the same model because it worked so well the first time.

There is being a small Tokyo-based studio with 300 employees and there is being a large American animation studio with 800+ employees.

THAT is why no one ever complains about Ghibli’s approach to character design and THAT is why Disney doesn’t even come close to Miyazaki.

Let’s finish this off with some MORE wonderful Ghibli characters (most of which being my personal favorites so they belong on here too.)

Now go watch more Ghibli.



anatomicalart:

Let me link Yall’ to this holy grail.
I present to you Character Design Reference
on [Pintrest] || [Tumblr] || [Twitter] || [Facebook] || [YouTube]

I couldn’t even include all of the reference boards this blog contains on this photoset. That’s right! There’s EVEN MORE! There are pages and pages of them! It is an inspiration treasure trove!
Bookmark this link!
Fill your life with inspiration!



Canvas #3 — ARTIST 360 

imaginismcanvas:

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7 Tips for the 21-Year-Old Me
by Bobby Chiu

When I was a student in college working on my skills as a character designer, I’d had periods where I would sit at my desk working as hard as I could but having little to show for my efforts at the end of the day. I remember sitting there surrounded by blank pieces of paper, trying to come up with an amazing style that nobody had ever seen before. I would do one drawing and not be satisfied, so I would lay a new piece of paper over it, re-draw it with slight changes to features here and there. This would still not be good enough so I would put another piece of paper over my revision, make more minor adjustments trying to perfect this new style I was searching for.

I did this for weeks on end, tweaking and polishing over and over, working hard every day. But in the end, did I come up with a brand new style, something amazing that nobody had ever seen before?

No, unfortunately I didn’t.

And how much did I improve from this experience? Not much at all.

Spinning my wheels like this made me a little depressed and I thought to myself, “If only someone could tell me what to do to become a great artist, I would do exactly that and do it with all my heart.”

That’s what this article is about: seven key things that I would tell the 21-year-old me, which I’ve found to have contributed the most to having a successful career in art.

1. “Focus, Bobby. Undisturbed focus, 90 minutes at a time.”

It’s actually really great to work intensely for short segments of time and take regular breaks. I’ve found that when I split my work into intense and focused 90-minutes sessions, not only do I have a good sense of urgency as the 90 minutes expire, but the regular breaks also give me wonderful, fresh looks at my work multiple times throughout the day.

2. “You have to practice, Bobby. There’s no way around it and there is no substitute for good, purposeful practice.”

There are many different ways to practice but I have found that practicing as a way of trying to learn has the greatest impact. What I mean by this is, I don’t practice drawing something just because it looks cool—I always have an objective in mind. What am I trying to learn?

Am I studying how an artist does a certain technique or achieves a certain look?

Am I learning muscles and other anatomy?

I didn’t practice simply how to copy what I saw but rather I practiced fully understanding what it was that I was drawing and painting to the point that I could do it out of my imagination.

If I had only practiced how to copy things, then I would have become a great copier. But by striving to understand what it was that I was referencing and trying to create something with the same essence and feeling, I worked multiple parts of my mind and skills.

3. “Embrace your routine, Bobby.”

I used to be against routines.

I used to think routines would take all the fun and excitement out of my life and lock me down. I started my own studio because I wanted to be free.

But I’ve since discovered that I looked at it all wrong.

Freedom isn’t necessarily a result of having spontaneity, it’s the result of having time.

I feel the most free when I have time to do the things that I really want to do, and the best way to have a lot of time is to be better organized. Having a great routine allows me to be more productive, which gives me more time to do the other things I love to do.

Routines are also extremely powerful for creating momentum but they only work if we make them a priority. I became better at drapery and drawing people by sketching for a few hours on the subways of Toronto every Sunday. This was part of my routine for five years and I did it consistently even if it was raining, Christmas, or my birthday. And even though subway sketching only took two or three hours every seven days, the routine helped improve my skills dramatically.

Try it yourself! Start off with something small that you know you can commit to. Do that thing consistently and you’ll quickly see the benefits of a great routine. Once you get used to it, add something new and soon you’ll have a great routine that will improve your skills and save your time.

4. “Cultivate a love for what you do, Bobby.”

As a student, I was afraid to really, truly love doing art. Some artists get too obsessed about their art, and I didn’t want to go that crazy about my work.

But what I found was that loving what I do doesn’t automatically make me crazy about it, and that’s a good thing. Loving art not only helps me get through the day, it makes me eagerly await the next day because each day is another opportunity to get better at doing what I love.

Most of us who call ourselves artists love art, but like with any relationship, we have to put in the effort in to make our love affair strong and lasting. So we should all try to cultivate our passion, enthusiasm, and love for art; these can only help us on our artistic journeys.

5. “Build a network of like-minded people, Bobby. Everything is easier when you have a group.”

I could never do as much or go as far alone as I could with a group of like-minded people.

I think part of the reason that I’ve had a successful career over the years is because I’m naturally curious about people. I love learning their stories and, in turn, making friends. In this way, I’ve been fortunate enough to meet many of the artists that I look up to and admire, and today, call them my friends.

Because art is typically a solitary pursuit, many artists are naturally shy individuals, so building a network can be daunting. Nevertheless, I cannot overstate the value of having people. To get over my natural shyness, particularly when I first met my heroes, I had to consciously dig around in my mind for that little tiny piece of me that is not as shy, and expand it even if it’s just for a short period of time. I let this little piece steer the ship for a while, and that was how I got myself out there to meet interesting people or people that I didn’t know.

Think of it this way: not meeting one person doesn’t mean missing out on that one person that you could have been friends with; it means missing out on that one person and every person that that person could have introduced you to, and one of THOSE people could have been the one to give you your dream job, been your best friend, or your wife or husband.

Take every opportunity you can to get out there and talk with people, in person or online. Who knows where it will lead you.

6. “Discomfort and fear can’t hurt you, Bobby. By challenging and overcoming them, you will always continue to improve.”

I have learned to challenge challenges, to be comfortable in discomfort, and to overcome my fears. By doing so, I constantly push my limits and therefore expand my potential and possibilities. I love doing things that are challenging, even when I might not know where to even start. These are the things that I live for and they have helped me to push my limits further and further.

When I’ve been too comfortable for too long, I get unsettled. An alarm will go off in my head, compelling me to get up and do something challenging.

Comfort is one of life’s traps and many new professionals fall into it, preventing them from continuing to learn and improve every day. The moment this happens will be the exact moment that you start to fall behind.

The whole world keeps evolving and learning every day, so to stay relevant and to have the best chance at a successful career, we must continue to learn as well.

7. “Exercise your willpower, Bobby. When the mind is willing, the body has no choice but to follow.”

We are not born with willpower. As babies and children, we have to be taught (and taught and taught again) to resist urges, wait for rewards, and basically do the things we know we should do but don’t particularly want to. This challenge doesn’t end at adulthood, either. In fact, I’m sure we all know grown men and women who still have trouble resisting that extra slice of cake, hitting that snooze button one more time, or doing that uncomfortable and inconvenient thing in order to get the reward that they want.

Willpower is something that we can develop, like a muscle that we can grow and strengthen. To exercise it, do things that are challenging or which you don’t want to do but you know are good for you.

Willpower drains as we make decisions such as resisting what we want to have, waiting for a reward, or doing something we don’t want to do. For example, perhaps you can decline a piece of chocolate cake, but what if it was followed by brownies, ice cream, French fries, and potato chips?

This is why I always prefer to make will-draining decisions the night before so that the following morning, I don’t have to make ANY decisions and can just jump right to the first item on my to-do list.



can you give me some tips on how to draw teeth ?
◥ Anonymous ◤


art advice   teeth   

How to help out your favorite artists when you don’t have any money 

3liza:

I post something like this about once a year, because I get a lot of messages from people who enjoy my art but feel guilty about not buying things from my store or subscribing on Patreon or getting things from my wishlist, etc. You really don’t need to do ANY of those things to help us out! Eyeballs on artwork is what we want, and just that is really helpful. But there are lots of other, free things you can do, if you want to, that will help us.

  • You can reblog our work, with credit! Tumblr, Pinterest, Twitter, Facebook, showing people next to you in class or at the library, whatever. The more you reblog our stuff, any kind of stuff, and especially if it has a name and/or link attached, the more followers we get, the happier we are, and the easier we can sell art and pay rent. This is such a vital part of our continued existence and it is difficult to overstate how grateful we are when it happens.

  • You can like, comment, subscribe on Youtube, reply on Twitter, and generally make our little numbers go up. Even if you don’t want a drawing on your blog, hitting “Like” helps. If people are browsing your liked posts (if you have this option available in your sidebar or in a separate page) they will see our work. Additionally, higher note counts translate instantly to “more worthy of being looked at” when parsed by an idle, browsing brain. That’s the price of being a member of a social species, and it stinks because it doesn’t reflect “quality” or “innate value” of art, whatever that is, but a post with 4 digit notes is going to get more positive regard than a post with a 2 digit notecount. And really, it makes sense. If lots of people like a thing, it is likely, if only statistically, that you will too. 

  • You can talk about your favorite artists to your friends. A lot of us idle on skype and irc all day, talking about new album releases and games and twitter beef. It doesn’t occur to a lot of us to talk about how so-and-so just did a cartoon of a fat bird that is making our day slightly better, but that URL pastes just as easily into the chat as any other. Don’t be annoying about it, but like Homeland Security always says, if you see something, say something!

  • You can look at/click the ads on our websites. You can disable AdBlock on our websites, too. I have two little Project Wonderful boxes at the top of my blog. They pay me very little per day, but when I need $20 to stop an overdraft fee or buy a food, Project Wonderful has my back. This has happened about a dozen times, enough to teach me the value of having that last, tiny bit of cash just slowly snowballing in the background.

There is probably other stuff that I’m forgetting, so please feel free to reblog and add them.



World Building Considerations: Cities 

thewritingcafe:

Creating a world from scratch can be overwhelming, but having an understanding of how societies form can be quite helpful. Here is a basic overview of how cities form.

The Origin

So how do cities pop up? Humans were nomadic for thousands of years before they learned to domesticate crops and livestock. With this domestication came the ability to stay in one place to grow food rather than to follow food and good weather.

Agriculture gave rise to permanent settlements. Humans settled near water and built homes that were durable. They became larger and architecture became more widespread. With building permanent homes came the need for more resources. The architecture of your cities (especially in worlds without modern technology and transportation) will depend on the surrounding resources.

With agriculture and settlements came society. Nomadic humans needed to travel light. Sedimentary humans did not.

Elements of Culture & Society

  • Clothing: When humans were nomadic, clothes were most likely animals skins and there was probably not a lot of it. Humans could only carry necessary items such as tools for hunting. Settled humans have the time and resources to create better clothes. Animals bones were sometimes carved into needles. Since humans could have more possessions when settled, they started making jewelry, more tools, pottery, and larger objects that could not be carried.
  • Population: If a baby was born with a physical deformity, this baby was abandoned because it was weak and would not survive. Humans in nomadic groups could not waste their limited resources on someone who would die soon anyway. In cities, humans could rest more often and spend what time they would traveling to take care of their young.
  • Economy: With agriculture came a large income of food. This led to the beginning of trade, especially when other groups of humans passed these new settlements (if they were friendly).
  • Law: With higher populations, an economy, and morality came crime. To deal with crime, some sort of authority must be established. For the enforcers of law to keep on track and prevent falling to corruption with power, laws needed to be written down. This is where written language comes in. But you need people who are able to read and write that language, hence education arises. With education, you need people to teach and people to learn.
  • Punishment: Given that currency may not have existed or that trade was more common as a form of exchange, the enforcers of law rarely gave fines when a law was broken. This led to the use of torture. Some cultures saw the left hand as the unclean hand and thus cut off the right hand as a punishment of stealing. The people who suffered this punishment then had to live their entire lives offending others by using their left hand for everything.
  • Religion: Most early civilizations were polytheistic. Their gods and goddesses were based on what was important to them. These beings set examples for the morals and values important to these groups. With architecture being developed, temples and shrines started popping up. Animals that are important to the population often became an important part of religion as well. Some were involved in burials or sacrifices. For example, a culture in Africa buried cattle with their dead and often made paintings of cattle because that animal was integral to that culture.
  • Marriage: Marriage is quite universal, though it may go by different names and have different laws depending on culture. It is defined, in its simplest form, as a sexual and economic union. With the rise of an economy and higher populations, this union became more common and often had a relation to religion, politics, or family influence.

The Evolution of the City

Over time, culture and society developed as the population rose. With higher populations came the need for more space. With enough people in a city, there needed to be some sort of organized power. Therefore, government buildings will be built. Also with higher populations comes more crime and the need for more enforcers. A military is established to deal with this and outside threats. Walls are built around cities for protection, though farms lay outside the walls. In times of war or threat, the population would hide within the city walls.

Also within the city will be a fort (called a citadel) for more protection if threats get inside city walls. Most cities that are over 1000 years old (especially in Europe) will have or will have had a citadel.

Over time, the population rises and more problems come up. Condensed areas are at higher risk for disease, especially without some sort of system for waste. Homes and other structures are built outside of the city, though sometimes the city walls are expanded.

Recap for Building Cities in Your World:

  • Put them near water.
  • Consider the resources available.
  • Establish law, punishment, and enforcers.
  • Religion and mythology explain morals, values, and the unknown and have an effect on laws.
  • The building of a society is produced by a domino effect.

Other Considerations:

  • Create a map of your city. Note important places.
  • Create a general history of your city.
  • Consider the population and its diversity.
  • High populations in condensed areas will have more sickness and less resources.
  • Don’t just write about the good stuff. Write about the bad stuff too, like the smell.


neutroisenjolras:

if you ever try to befriend me and you expect to be in frequent contact with me i am so sorry. i do that with maybe two people and even then i often go days or weeks withouts saying anything before talking daily for a while. 

the point is if we dont talk that doesnt mean i dont like u and think about u a lot im just terrible at maintaining close relationships



whelp   i'm so bad at this   omg   

jeremycoatney:

seducemymindyouidiot:

pasiphile:

frankysplait:

glowcloud:

i love the Women Against Feminism that are like “I dont need feminism because i can admit i need my husband to open a jar for me and thats ok!” cause listen 1. get a towel 2. get the towel damp 3. put it on the lid and twist. BAM now men are completely useless. you, too, can open a jar. time to get a divorce

image

SUE

Also taking the heel of your hand and hitting the bottom of the jar will loosen the air seal

You can also use a spoon or other object to pull back the edge of the lid just enough to break the seal momentarily without bending the lid out of shape.

If nothing else helps and you don’t really need the lid anyway you can stab it with a knife or other pointy object that’ll put a hole in it. It’s not the most elegant solution but it works. *shrug*